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You Are Here >> UA Tests ( Urine Drug Test Home Page) >> Drug Information Home Page >> Flakka

alpha-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone

Alpha-PVP, also known as Flakka

alpha-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone Flakka_Alpha-PVP

α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (also known as α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, α-PVP, O-2387, β-keto-prolintane, Prolintanone, or Desmethyl Pyrovalerone) is a synthetic stimulant of the cathinone class developed in the 1960s that has been sold as a designer drug. Colloquially it is sometimes called flakka or gravel. α-PVP is chemically related to pyrovalerone and is the ketone analog of prolintane.

Adverse effects

α-PVP, like other psychostimulants, can cause hyperstimulation, paranoia, and hallucinations. α-PVP has been reported to be the cause, or a significant contributory cause of death in suicides and overdoses caused by combinations of drugs. α-PVP has also been linked to at least one death where it was combined with pentedrone and caused heart failure.

Reports surfaced that Austin Harrouff, a 19-year-old FloridaState University student, stabbed a married couple to death in their Jupiter, Florida home, and then gnawed at the male victim's face. The FSU fraternity brother grunted like an animal as police tried to subdue him during the Monday night attack, officials said.

Authorities believe Harrouff was high on flakka, a highly addictive designer drug that causes paranoia and psychosis. Flakka, sometimes known as gravel, is closely related to bath salts, a synthetic cathinone that police linked to the infamous face-eating attack in Miami four years ago. The man-made drug that's manufactured primarily in China entered the states only a few years ago, but didn't soar in popularity until 2013. Florida has seen the brunt of the flakka abuse. The epidemic began to spread to the Midwest last year.

After 45 years, more than $1 trillion wasted, and the creation of the world's largest prison system, America still lacks the political will to change its failed drug policy

Detection in body fluids

α-PVP may be quantified in blood, plasma or urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients or to provide evidence in a medicolegal death investigation. Blood or plasma α-PVP concentrations are expected to be in a range of 10–50 μg/L in persons using the drug recreationally, >100 μg/L in intoxicated patients and >300 μg/L in victims of acute overdosage.

Legal status

α-PVP is a Schedule I drug in New Mexico, Delaware, Florida, Oklahoma, and Virginia. On January 28, 2014, the U.S. DEA listed it, along with nine other synthetic cathinones, on the Schedule 1 with a temporary ban, effective February 27, 2014. The temporary ban was then extended.

As of October 2015 α-PVP is a controlled substance in China.

The President of the Republic of Italy classified cathinone and all structurally derived analogues (including pyrovalerone analogues) as Narcotics on January 2012.

In Australia Alpha-PVP is a Schedule 9 prohibited substance in Australia under the Poisons Standard (July 2016). A Schedule 9 substance is a substance which may be abused or misused, the manufacture, possession, sale or use of which should be prohibited by law except when required for medical or scientific research, or for analytical, teaching or training purposes with approval of Commonwealth and/or State or Territory Health Authorities. The drug was explicitly made illegal in New South Wales after it was illegally marketed with the imprimatur of erroneous legal advice that it was not encompassed by analog provisions of the relevant act. It is encompassed by those provisions, and therefore has been illegal for many years in New South Wales. The legislative action followed the death of two individuals from using it; one jumping off a balcony, another having a heart attack after a state of delirium.

α-PVP is banned in Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Sweden, United Kingdom, Turkey, Norway, as well as the Czech Republic.

Economics

α-PVP is sometimes the active ingredient in recreational drugs sold as "bath salts". It may also be distinguished from "bath salts" and sold under a different name: "flakka", a name used in Florida, or "gravel" in other parts of the U.S. It is reportedly available as cheaply as US$5 per dose. A laboratory for one county in Florida reported a steady rise in α-PVP detections in seized drugs from none in January–February 2014 to 84 in September 2014.

See also

  • α-Pyrrolidinohexiophenone (α-PHP)
  • α-Pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (α-PVT)
  • 4'-Methoxy-α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone
  • Naphyrone (O-2482)
  • Pentedrone
  • Pentylone
  • Prolintane
  • Pyrovalerone (O-2371)

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